回首頁
回首頁
 

 

阿扁總統成功的反核革命敗在全民的漠視
The failed anti-nuclear revolution by President Chen
due to the widespread apathy among citizens in Taiwan

◎ 陳順勝

By Dr. Chen Shun-Sheng, Translated with comments by Jay Tu

台電核能第四發電廠計畫於1980年5月提出,經行政院原子能委員會選址於貢寮。在1982年至1986年的中央政府也編列新台幣110億元預算,並執行31億餘元。1992年5月6日李登輝以國民黨主席身份在中常會裁示建核四。

The controversial fourth nuclear power plant (NP4) project in Taiwan was proposed in May, 1980 by the Executive Yuan 's Atomic Energy Commission.  Gongliao, located at the north tip of Taiwan, was chosen as the plant site.  From 1982 to 1986, the KMT government set aside a budget of NT$ 11 billion, from which about 3.1 billion was expensed.  On May 6, 1992, Lee Teng-hui, former Taiwan President from 1988 to 2000, in his capacity as KMT’s chairman, decided to proceed with the construction of this power plant in a KMT Central Standing Committee meeting.  (Note that former DPP chairman, Lin Yi-Hsiung, a prominent and widely esteemed democracy dissident during the martial law era of Taiwan, is currently on hunger strike, aiming to permanently stop the construction of NP4.  Mr. Lin’s mother and his twin daughters were stabbed to death on Feb. 28, 1980 while Lin was in custody for alleged treason by the KMT government.  Lin's eldest daughter, Huan-Jun Lin, who was badly wounded in the incident, was the only survivor in this cold-blooded murder, which stunned Taiwan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lin_Yi-hsiung).

1996年3月23日,時任台北市長陳水扁於台北市舉行核四公投。民進黨於2011年4月宣稱當時投票率為58%,其中反核佔53%,擁核佔46%。1996年5月21日 立法院由張俊宏、翁金珠、顏錦福等民進黨立委提「廢止所有核能電廠興建計畫案」,於5月24日通過。副總統兼行政院長連戰主導之行政院不接受決議隨即提出核四覆議案,直到10月18日覆議案獲得通過,廢止案決議不予維持。

On March 23, 1996, as Taipei mayor, Chen Shui-bian held a referendum on NP4 in Taipei.  According to a statement by DPP released in April 2011, the turnout for that particular referendum was 58%, in which  53% were anti-nuclear, while 46% pro-nuclear.  On May 21, 1996, several DPP legislators brought up a resolution to abolish all nuclear power plant construction projects and the resolution was passed on May 24.  Lien Chan, who was Vice President and Premier at the time, rejected this resolution and mobilized KMT legislators to repeal the resolution on Oct. 10, 1996.

2000年5月20日政黨輪替,陳水扁總統就職。唐飛主張續建核四,然而續建核四電廠與否的爭議,與民進黨政府的主張廢核四完全不同,最終唐飛於2000年10月6日因主張續建核四,與總統主張廢核四立場不同,以健康不佳為由請辭獲准。

On May 20, 2000, Chen Shui-bian was sworn in as the new president, achieving the first ever transfer of power from KMT to DPP in Taiwan by winning a three-way race.  Premier Tang, a KMT member but appointed by Chen as a compromise for recognizing the super majority of KMT in congress, was in support of continuing the construction of NP4.  However, Tang’s advocate of nuclear power was at odds with Chen’s anti-nuclear position.  As a result, Tang resigned from his post as the Premier, citing health reasons.

唐飛辭職後,由副閣揆張俊雄於2000年10月接任行政院長,當時民進黨在國會席次佔少數,在聯合內閣解組後開啟了隨後少數政府執政的局面。核四已完成約30%的建設工程,其後在停止興建核四問題中,陳水扁堅持停建核四。行政院長張俊雄10月27日發表“打造非核家園唯一的選擇”聲明,宣布停止興建第四座核電廠,阿扁總統成功地完成反核革命。當天總統陳水扁與國民黨主席連戰會談,會後指示行政院長張俊雄宣佈將不繼續執行核四興建預算案。就意味著現任政府要支付近30億美元的賠償金。國民黨、親民黨和新黨決定要求監察院彈劾行政院。這場政治危機已經導致台灣股市大滑坡,還是跌了2.5%,政府不得不進行干預,以阻止股價持續下跌。台灣三大在野黨指出,停建核四的決定是非法的,並可能會導致電力匱乏,削弱商界的信心。在野三黨仍積極聯絡,準備聯合起來彈劾陳水扁,推翻剛上任5個月的新政府。

After Tang’s resignation, Vice Premier Chang Chun-Hsiung, a DPP veteran, was appointed as the new Premier in October 2000.  Chen’s administration was severely weakened after Tang’s resignation because DPP was greatly outnumbered in the parliament.  Despite NP$ was already 30% in completion, Chen was determined to scrape it.   Premier Chang, on October 27, proclaimed a policy - "Nuclear-free homeland as the only option," and announced a decision to stop the construction of NP4 immediately, effectively completing President Chen’s anti-nuclear revolution. The decision to scrap NP4 was announced on the day after President Chen held a talk with KMT Chairman Lien Chan at the president office.  Lien just forced Lee out of KMT and took over as the KMT chair despite he was a failed presidential candidate in his 2000 bid, receiving the lowest votes in that three-way race.  The scrap decision also meant that the government would have to pay a penalty of NT$120 billion (US$3 billion) to the main contractor (a US consortium) of NP4 for breaching the contract.  Chen reasoned that the future saving in construction cost and the elimination of nuclear risk far outweighed this $3 billion in damages  (looking back, 14 years later, Chen was perfectly right).  Lien, felt a slap in the face, teamed with two other opposing parties, the People First Party and New Party, to impeach Chen using their super majority in the Legislator Yuan.  Premier Chang was also reprimanded by the Control Yuan, which was also controlled by KMT.  This political crisis had led to a 2.5% stock market decline, requiring the government to intervene to prevent further fall.  This was only five months into Chen’s presidency. 

BBC中文網報道說,陳水扁總統會尊重立法院有關核四的其他決議,被理解為陳水扁有意平息風波,安撫民心,化解反對派的敵意。這就使本來只涉及環保與經濟問題的核四爭議演變成朝野反目、政局不穩的導火線。陳水扁召集政府五院院長開會研究如何避免危機惡化,但國民黨籍的立法院長王金平決定不出席。2001年1月15日,司法院大法官作出釋字第520號解釋文,要求行政院若欲變更國家重要政策,停止預算執行,則須向立法院報告,並獲立法院決議後始得停止執行。台灣總統陳水扁正試圖平息圍繞停建第四座核電廠決定而發生的政治危機。雖然陳水扁表示,停建核電廠的決定基於環境和道德等因素,但這個解釋似乎無濟於事,後因得不到反核人士與人民的群起奧援,終至讓步,宣佈續建核四。2001年1月30日,立法院臨時會,國民黨、親民黨、新黨黨團及無黨籍聯盟由立法委員鄭永金等91人提動議案。最終以135:70的比數表決通過決議:立法院依大法官會議所作第五二0號之解釋意旨,再予確認核能四廠預算具有法定預算效力。反對行政院逕予停止核能四廠興建之決定;行政院應繼續執行相關預算,立即復工續建核能四廠。很可惜當時反核勢力完全未?動,人民完全漠視,使阿陳水扁總統在人民這邊未能獲得應有的奧援,終至飲恨,使爾後的反核運動相當坎坷。

Facing this political crisis, President Chen Shui-bian convened a meeting with the heads of five Branches (Legislative Yuan, Control Yuan, Judicial Yuan, Executive Yuan, and Examination Yuan), hoping to  keep the crisis from further deterioration, but the head of Legislative Yuan, Wang Jin-Pyng, a KMT veteran, boycotted the meeting.   On January 15, 2001, the supreme court of Taiwan issued a decision, No. 520, making the Executive Yuan’s announcement to scrap NP4 unconstitutional.  This No. 520 decision requires the Executive Yuan to seek approval from the Legislative Yuan before scrapping any major public construction projects.  Another resolution, brought upon by KMT and others, was passed by a 135 to 70 margin in the Legislative Yuan to reaffirm Supreme Court’s decision.   Despite Chen’s plead to the public that scrapping the nuclear power plant was a right decision for the sake of the environment protection and a moral obligation to future generations, he never received the support he needed from the public or the anti-nuclear activists.  At the end, Chen compromised and reversed his decision.  The construction of NP4 was continued to this day, nearly three hundred billion dollars later.  In other words, the anti-nuclear revolution initiated by Chen failed due to the widespread apathy among citizens in Taiwan.

2001年2月,行政與立法兩院達成協議,推動建立「非核家園」為終極目標。這年立法院通過《環境基本法》,明確揭櫫「非核家園」的目標與政策。行政院並於同年九月設置「非核家園推動委員會」。

2002年9月21日反核人士才站出來,林義雄率領核四公投促進會於台北市艋舺龍山寺出發,環島呼籲核四公投及公民投票立法運動。

However, President Chen did not give up his anti-nuclear revolution entirely.  In February 2001, the Executive Yuan and the Legislative Yuan reached an agreement to define a Nuclear-Free Homeland as an eventual goal, which was then written into a new environmental protection law, passed in 2001.  In September, 2001, an ad hoc committee, Nuclear-Free Homeland Promotion Committee, was formed under the Executive Yuan. However, it was not until September 21, 2002, anti-nuclear activists, led by Lin Yi-Hsiung, started their campaign by calling for a referendum law and a referendum to scrap NP4.  Lin led a group of activists to march around Taiwan on foot to spread the anti-nuclear message.  They started their multi-month long journey at the famed Long-Shan Temple in Monga, Taipei.

2003年3月17日,林義雄等核四公投促進會成員在行政院發動靜坐守夜、要求陳水扁政府在2004年總統大選前舉辦核四公投。五月完成「非核家園推動法」草案。六月底舉辦全國非核家園會議,會議針對非核家園的理念、價值、推動機制、公民參與、教育宣導及非核家園推動法草案等議題,廣邀各界進行討論,目的在進一步凝聚全民信念。

在公民投票法於2003年12月31日正式施行前,即有民間團體與政治人物多次提出以「公投」為名的反核聯署活動。2004年~2008年間總計舉辦過三次,共六個與核能無關之全國性公投案,全數因為投票人數未達可投票人數50%下限而遭否決,此後至2013年間未有新的公投案被提出。

On March 17, 2003, Lin Yi-hsiung , along with members of his NP4 Referendum Association, staged a sit-in vigil at the Executive Yuan, demanding President Chen to hold a referendum before the 2004 Presidential election as well several initiatives and new laws to educate the general public about the nuclear safety.  The goal was to build up consensus among citizens to promote the anti-nuclear power message.

Before the referendum law was passed on December 31, 2003, several referendum proposals were initiated by seeking endorsing signatures.  However, since the referendum law was passed, there has been no motion to hold a referendum on NP4, although there were six referendums in three separate occasions between 2004 to 2008.  All six failed because not enough citizens participated in voting even though the majority of those who voted casted positive votes.  The referendum law requires at least 50% of all qualified voters in Taiwan to participate or the result is invalided.  KMT did their best to boycott these referendums by asking their supporters not to participate in addition to setting up all kinds of voting obstacles to discourage participation.  From 2008 to 2013, no new referendum case was brought to vote.

直至2013年3月9日至10日,綠色公民行動聯盟等150個民間團體共同發起309廢核大遊行,參與總人數約22萬人,活動口號為「終結核四,核電歸零」。只是此時阿扁總統早已鋃鐺入獄,多數人也忘記阿扁總統曾經在他任內成功的反核革命。

台灣公民冷漠地等到全民總統阿扁被「統派結合外國強權美中勢力、鋪天蓋地排山倒海抹黑妖魔化、囚禁六年身心鉅創」之後,再來常常上街頭、車撞總統府、佔立法院、衝行政院、齊聚凱道、遍地開花。台灣公民當年不好好珍惜做對事的總統,搞到六年來要常常上街抗議,讓人不勝唏唏!

On March 9 and 10, 2013, Green Citizens Action Alliance, along with 150 non-governmental organizations co-sponsored a rally with 220,000 people to demand “No NP4 and Zero Nuclear Power”. At this time, President Chen had been imprisoned for nearly five years and few people remembered his anti-nuclear revolution.

How ironic this is. During Chen’s presidency, the widespread apathy of general public in Taiwan resulted in a failed anti-nuclear revolution. For the past six years, President Chen has been thoroughly demonized and his health was destroyed by KMT conspired with powers from China and the US. Only then, citizens of Taiwan finally come to realize the evilness of the Ma administration. Many of them now fight hard, staging rallies and sit-ins on streets, ramming a truck into the President office, occupying the Legislator Yuan and Executive Yuan, the sunflower movement, throwing shoes at Ma, hunger strikes, etc. However, NP4 could have been scrapped with much less societal cost and civil struggles if citizens in Taiwan had rallied around President Chen in 2000. It is simply heartsick when it comes to the apathy and collective low wisdom of Taiwan citizens.

原載:【民報】2014年4月25日

The original article was published in Taiwan People News on April 25, 2014

(Note: When this translation was completed, the hunger strike by Lin Yi-Hsiung has entered its fifth day. Lin was frail after five days without eating. DPP Chair Su and Ma held an open meeting, broadcasted live, during which Ma refused to scrap NP4 and showed zero concern over Lin’s life. Of course Ma has no regards toward any life other than his, judging the way he tortures President Chen. One can only conclude that there isn’t much human left inside Ma. And yet, Taiwanese elected him twice and citizens of Taipei chose him over President Chen as the mayor. The conclusion is the same: the apathy and low collective wisdom lead to horror, horror and more horror.)

台灣e新聞