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國家名份比主體性更重要

◎ 楊劉秀華

10月20日參加台灣教授協會主辦「從當代問題探討台灣主體性的確立」學術研討會,薛化元教授在論文指出,目前部份國人縱使不願成為中華人民共和國的國民,卻無法正視台灣海峽兩岸現實上已經是「一邊一國」的矛盾情節,可謂其來有自,也是過去教育文化發展的結果。就此而言,唯有透過以台灣為主體的歷史、教育文化,也才具有從根柢「救贖」的可能,教育的台灣主體性導向課程改革之必要性,也由此可見。

讀了這些內容,讓我感覺到大多數台灣人對於「主體性」與「國家名份」混淆不清。記得,1934年我參加台南第一高女入學考試之前,台南花園小學校之日本老師中山先生對我說:「你是台灣人,要想考取,必須加倍用功念書才行。」當時十三歲的我,不懂老師講的是什麼?在日治時代,受教育的機會台灣人與日本人並不公平。那一年,錄取一百個學生,其中台灣人只有三人,我是以第二名考取進入台南第一高女。100個學生人分成兩班,每班有級長一人,副級長一人,副副級長一人,在兩班的六位學生幹部中,雖然我是得第二名,身為台灣人的我,卻沒有我的份。當時我雖然很難過,但並沒有自暴自棄,保持著平常心,只是在心裡有一個大疑問?這是為甚麼呢?後來我想到了答案,係因我的國家名份與日本人不同,大多數的同學是擁有日本國籍的日本人,而我是擁有日本國籍的台灣人,我是被日本殖民統治的人,根本沒有自己的國家,因此,從那時起,70多年來,一直希望能有一個屬於自己的國家。

1945年太平洋戰爭結束時,當時我25歲是日本國籍,並沒有經本人的同意,就被變成中華民國國籍。事實上,依照1952年4月19日日本政府公文書規定,本土台灣人從1952年4月28日舊金山和約生效日起才喪失日本國籍,然依1946年1月12日國民政府行政院訓令規定,本土台灣人卻溯自1945年10月25日即「恢復」中華民國國籍,由此可見,當時國民身分的變動,並沒有遵循國際法的原則。

綜述,「主體性」與「國家名份」是不同的,要確立台灣主體性固然重要,而釐清國民身分的真相更為重要,即使有了流亡政府的國籍,有了主體性,但欠缺正常國家名份,仍無法與世界各國平起平坐,例如加入聯合國﹑WHO,參加奧運會等,都受到不公平的待遇。目前中華民國流亡政府根本沒有權力統治管理台灣人民,大家為何不出聲音呢?希望大家站出來,大聲喊「馬政府,你們沒有權力來統治管理我們台灣人」,我們要建立自己的國家,做國家的主人。

(作者為國際文化基金董事長)

2012-11-01

楊劉秀華專欄

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National Status is More Important Than Subjectivity
By Yang Liu Hsiu-Hwa

While participating in the symposium, “To explore the establishment of Taiwan subjectivity from contemporary issues”, organized by the Taiwan Association of University Professors on October 20, Professor Hsueh Hua-yuan(薛化元) indicated in his essay that  “ Although some people do not want to be nationals of the People's Republic of China, they still can not face the reality that both sides of Taiwan Strait is currently “One Country on Each Side”. There are sources for this kind of contradictory plot.  Only through Taiwan egocentric history, education and culture, we are likely to have "salvation" from the fundamentals. Under this situation, we can see the necessity of Taiwan subjectivity-oriented education curriculum reform.

After reading these, I feel that most of the Taiwanese are confused between "Subjectivity" and "National Status". Remembering, before I attended the first female senior high school entrance exam in Tainan in 1934, the Japanese teacher of Tainan Garden Elementary School, Mr. Nakayama, said to me: "You are Taiwanese, you have to study extra hard in order to pass the exam.” As a 13 years old girl, I did not understand the meanings of what the teacher said. Educational opportunities for Taiwanese and Japanese, during the Japanese colonial era, were not fair. Among 100 students they admitted that year, only three of them were Taiwanese. I was admitted with the second highest score. All of 100 students were divided into two classes. Every class had one class president, one vice president and one deputy vice president.

Although I, as a Taiwanese, had the second highest score, I was not appointed as any position of the six class officers.  Although I was very sad, I didn’t give up on myself.  I still maintain a sense of balance. But, I always had a big question mark in my hearts? Why was this? Later, I found the answer. My national status was different from my Japanese classmate. Most of my classmates were Japanese with Japanese nationality, but I was Taiwanese with Japanese nationality. I was a Taiwanese under Japanese colonial rule. To be specific, I was a person without my own country.  Therefore, since then for over 70 years, I always long for a country of my own.

When the pacific war ended in 1945, I was 25 years old with Japanese nationality. My nationality was converted to Republic of China without my consent.  In fact, according to Japanese government official document dated April 19, 1952, the effective date of native Taiwanese to lose Japanese nationality was April 28, 1952 in compliance with San Francisco Peace Treaty. However, according to national government instructions dated January 12, 1946, the date of native Taiwanese  "restore" their nationality of the Republic of China was backdated to October 25, 1945.  From this discrepancy, we can see clearly that national government did not follow the principles of international law to change our national identity.

In summary,  "national status" is different from "subjectivity". To clarify the truth of our national identity is more important than to establish Taiwan's subjectivity. Although we had obtained the nationality of government-in-exile with subjectivity, but without normal national identity, we still unable to stand equally with other nations, such as join the United Nations, WHO, and the Olympics. We are always subjected to unfair treatment. The Republic of China government in exile did not have the power to rule the people of Taiwan, Why don’t we speak out? I hope everyone stand up and shout "Ma administration, you do not have the authority to rule us Taiwanese, we want to establish our own country, and be the master of our country.

(The author is chairman of International Cultural Fund)

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